Bayreuth African Studies Working Papers
- Afrika (5) (remove)
- Challenging notions of development and change from everyday life in Africa (2013)
- The fourth volume of BIGSASworks! seeks to present the interdependence of paradigms and practices in global, national, and local spheres from different disciplinary perspectives and foci - Social Anthropology, Geography, Media Studies, Political Sciences and Sociology. The contributing papers present various ways in which the daily livelihood activities of community people in different parts of Africa represent this interdependence. Together and in interlinked ways, the authors address the question of how global development paradigms affect people’s lives, what meanings are there in the everyday things people do to live that may synchronise or be at variance with these global paradigms. The contributing papers challenge us all to take another look at our approach to development in Africa and its entanglements with broader forces.
- Women's Life Worlds 'In-Between' (2011)
- This volume of Bayreuth African Studies Working Papers authored and edited by doctoral students of the Bayreuth International Graduate School of African Studies (BIGSAS) represents challenges and (im-)possibilities of reviewing women’s life worlds in Africa. Therewith we revive an old debate: African thinkers opposed Western concepts, searching for a kind of feminism beyond traditional roles and beyond Western feminism, which basically antagonizes women’s subordination due to patriarchy. Thus, if African women have different positions to Western feminism, how do they perceive themselves? To what extent are women expanding their social, political or economic realm? Does this change result in a re-definition of gender roles? How do women in Africa deal with gendered hierarchies and authority? Are there conflicts or ‘in-betweens’ among ‘traditional roles’ and the behavior of women? All these questions surround one core content: women’s life worlds ‘in-between’. ‘In-betweenness’ refers here to a situation when the life worlds of women transform, resulting from social, political, economic or environmental changes or uncertainties. In such a situation women negotiate between conflicting or contradictory assumed norms, roles, social practices or orders. Opportunities for women may change, expand or become limited. For example, women can rethink their roles and behavior, be it temporary or in long term perspectives. Following this view the authors focus on situations of ‘in-betweenness’ of women in different African countries and in diverse realms of life. Literary scholar Samuel Ndogo analyzes the autobiography of an exceptional Kenyan author and activist: Wangari Maathai. The title of her autobiography, Unbowed (2006), already suggests friction between her life trajectory and cultural notions of womanhood. However, the title also shows pride at having withstood opposition, which at the same time contests a society’s readiness to tolerate an exception. Katharina Nambula’s paper shares Ndogo’s perspective of Literature Studies and shows how the female protagonists in Waiting, written by Goretti Kyomuhendo (2007), survive in a politically instable and male dominated society during the reign of Idi Amin in Uganda. Facing the men's inability to sort out the chaos, Kyomuhendo’s female characters temporarily deploy their hidden strengths to resume some order. As soon as men re-enter their former positions though, gender relations are back to normal. Other aspects of uncertainty and how women deal with it are discussed by Serah Kiragu. With regard to global climate change, Kiragu assesses changes in women’s livelihoods in semi arid Kenya. She describes the women’s recent difficulties and how they are coping with a changing environmental situation. This approach vividly illustrates that a notion of women as passive victims does not hold. Young rural women in Northern Ghana change their social sphere altogether – at least temporarily. In his anthropological article, Christian Ungruhe describes how a whole generation of young girls move out from their rural homes to urban centers. They become actively involved in labor migration and therewith experience economic independence in an attempt to generate their dowry, acquire modern assets, and consummate relationships. Although the journey marks a temporary phase in the women’s lives, it is an important experience which they can bring to their future rural lives and a permanent phenomenon in women’s biographies in West Africa. In contrast, women in Lesotho participate in wage labor on a permanent basis. Lena Kroeker illustrates in a historic and ethnographic overview why Lesotho ranks 8th in the Global Gender Gap Index 2010 and how women’s high level of participation did not change but merely separated gender and generations. Various civil society representatives met at the World Social Forum with the aim of creating a more equal and just world. Antje Daniel portraits the strategies and main features of Brazilian and Kenyan women’s organizations and explains how characteristics of women’s organizations in the national context determine transnational activism within the space of the World Social Forum. All contributions not only illustrate contemporary life worlds of women but depict processes of change within them from the perspectives of African Literature, Geography, Anthropology and Sociology. The articles in this first issue of BIGSASworks! from a broad spectrum of disciplines provide fresh and original perspectives on an evergreen debate as well as unique empirical material.
- 5 (2007)
- Trade unions and the informal economy in Zambia: Building strength or loosing ground? (2007)
- The increasing casualisation of labour forces trade unions globally to deal with a growing number of unprotected and unrepresented workers in what is dubbed by the unions, even if critically, as the informal economy. This paper assesses the impact and further potential of a direct and indirect intervention of the Zambian labour movement towards the informal economy, according to basic criteria like skills development, networking, innovation capacity and access to finance for micro-entrepreneurs. Through providing business development services, the unions also encourage informal sector organizations to associate themselves with Zambia Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU), thereby strengthening the socio-political representation of the informal economy workers and the labour union movement as a whole. It still remains to be seen, however, to which extent NGO-like approaches that seem to be vital when opening towards the informal economy might compromise basic principles of the labour movement like effective, yet democratic and transparent structures based on mass membership.
- Kuduru - Musikmachen ohne Führerschein (2009)
- Im diesem Artikel möchte ich einen ersten wissenschaftlichen Versuch unternehmen, die musikalische Kultur des Kuduru und seine Bedeutung sowohl in der angolanischen Hauptstadt als auch in der - vielfach als Vorort Luandas wahrgenommenen - zweiten Produktionsstätte Lissabon zu beleuchten. Kuduru als rein elektronische Musik ist derzeit tatsächlich als einzigartig für Afrika zu bewerten - abgesehen von einigen südafrikanischen Kwaito-Stücken gibt es keine nur mit Computertechnologie generierte Populärmusik. In den populären Jugendkulturen anderer afrikanischer Metropolen ist vielmehr lokaler Hip Hop und Reggae dominant. Die vielfach an zeitgenössische Musikentwicklungen herangetragene Kritik der Homogenisierung und Amerikanisierung durch globale Einflüsse lässt sich im Fall der Kuduru-Szene kaum bestätigen. Zwar handelt es sich hier um elektronische Musik, die sich musikalisch westlichen Musikkulturen annähert und mit diesen kreuzt, jedoch haben wir es nicht mit einer Rave-Kultur zu tun, wie sie in den urbanen Zentren Europas im Zusammenhang mit Techno- und Housemusik seit den späten 1980er Jahren entstanden ist. Im Kuduru geht es nicht um ´kollektive Tanzekstase, oder ´unreflektierte Spaß- und Partykultur, Elemente die als charakteristisch für die Rave-Kultur der 1990er Jahre gelten. Kuduru und seine Performance sind vielmehr individualistisch angelegt. Zwar findet, wie auch in anderen Bereichen elektronischer Musikkultur, eine Art Nivellierung der Hierarchiestrukturen statt, vor allem über den offenen Austausch von Daten und Informationen (sog. open-content) sowie eine starke Vernetzung über die so genannte ´virtuelle Kulturrealität, das Internet. Gleichzeitig gibt es Kuduru aber auch ganz manifest in der Kulturrealität vor Ort. Hier wird Starkult betrieben und Machtpositionen zwischen den besten Musikern, DJs und Tänzern werden ausgehandelt.
- Trends, Discourses and Representations in Religions in Africa (2012)
- Religion in Africa has for long been a woven cultural fabric of life, a great moving force that guided people’s behavior, interaction and action since time immemorial. A decade after the United States experience of the 9/11, the unfortunate event has set the landmark for a geopolitics in contemporary Africa that securitizes religious movements and that identify them with the so-called global war on terror, a phenomenon within which most African nations play a significant regional role. The current wave of developments related to religion in the contingent became fossilized through religious manipulation and politicization in the post-colonial era. Three thematic concepts have been identified, i.e., religious trends, cultural discourses and representation, in order to capture some of the most contemporary issues of concern to Muslim, Christian and indigenous religious communities in Africa. Nine papers in this second issue of BIGSAS Works! hence targeted current doctoral researches from a wide range of disciplines and successfully integrated a cross-disciplinary approach to appreciate the complexity of faith matters in the continent.