Bayreuther Graduiertenschule für Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften (BayNAT)
The origins of olivine fabric transitions and their effects on seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle
- Convecting mantle plays a central role in the thermal and geochemical evolution of the Earth. It provides the principal force responsible for major geological features such as mountains and ocean basins. Plate tectonics and its violent consequences such as earthquakes and volcanoes are all manifestations of the dynamics of the convective mantle. Shearing forces generated by mantle convection leads to lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of the major upper mantle mineral phases. LPO that develops in this way is thought to be the principal cause behind seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle, which can consequently be used to chart convective flow of the mantle.
Strong changes in seismic anisotropy occur in the top 300 km of the upper mantle where olivine is the principal mineral. In this study a solid media high pressure deformation apparatus, called the deformation-DIA or D-DIA, has been used to deform aggregates of San Carlos olivine in simple shear geometry at pressures between 3 and 8.5 GPa and temperatures from 1300-1500°C. As part of this project a high pressure and temperature solid-media cubic assembly was developed to facilitate these experiment that employed alumina pistons cut at 45° to shear the sample but minimized cold deformation of the sample by employing initially porous alumina in the sample column. Once stable high pressures and temperature were reached the cubic assembly was deformed by compressing two vertically oriented anvils of the D-DIA, while the four horizontally oriented anvils were maintained at a constant loading force. This assembly shortening led to shearing of the olivine sample. Recovered samples were analyzed for fabric development employing electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and microstructure was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Experiments were performed at each pressure and temperature as a function of strain rate and H2O content. In dry olivine deformation experiments performed at slower strain rates an A-type fabric dominated at all pressures and temperatures, implying deformation by dislocation glide through the (010) slip system. At higher strain rates evidence for the B-type fabric was observed, suggesting increased activity of the (010) slip system at higher stresses. Recrystallization grains size and dislocation densities were used to estimate stresses in the samples and a good correlation was observed between strain rate and estimated flow stresses. Dry experiments from 8.5 GPa and 1500°C exhibited no LPO, which may be an indication for deformation through diffusion accommodated grain boundary sliding at these conditions. No indication was found that pressure influences the dominant slip system in olivine, in contrast to previous studies. It is considered that previously reported incidences of pressure effects can in fact be attributed to the development of higher stresses in experiments performed at higher pressures.
Fabrics in H2O bearing olivine deformed at similar conditions revealed the overriding dominance of the C-type fabric, developed through action of the (100) slip system. Variations in pressure, temperature and strain rate had little influence on this fabric development. TEM observations confirmed the presence of dislocations with slip systems consistent with the development of the macroscopic fabrics. Viscoplastic self consistent modeling was employed to understand the development of fabric in the samples and to estimate the relative contributions of variations slip systems to the developed fabrics.
These results are used to construct an olivine fabric map which is found to be consistent with some previous studies at lower pressures. It is argued that the decrease in seismic anisotropy observed in the top 300 km of the upper mantle cannot originate from a pressure induced change in the dominant olivine deformation fabric. Instead it is argued that changes in the H2O content of olivine with depth cause a shift in the dominant fabric from A-type to C-type, with a possible excursion through the E-type fabric, dominant slip system (001), which was, however, not observed in this study. Modeling is used to show that this variation in fabric with depth can cause the observed weakening the seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle if the olivine H2O content increases from below 100 ppm at 50 km to 250 ppm at 300 km. Rather than implying an increased in the H2O content of the mantle with depth, however, it is argued that this change in olivine H2O content can be caused by changes in the H2O olivine-pyroxene partition coefficients with depth, for a fixed bulk mantle H2O content of 200 ppm.
Similar deformation experiments performed on a peridotite assemblage at 8.5 GPa and 1300°C indicate identical olivine fabrics to those observed in monomineralic experiments at the same conditions. Fabrics for diopside and enstatite were found to be similar to those found in previously performed lower pressure experiments.
Experiments on a piezoelectric single crystal of GaPO4 were performed in the D-DIA and 6-ram MAVO press at high pressures in order to measure charge on the crystal developed through the application of deviatoric stresses. Electrical charges were measured through the use of an operational amplifier. Experiments performed at room temperature using a developed cubic assembly were successful in measuring quantifiable electrical charges resulting from the advancement of the deformation anvils by as little as 0.5 µm. Although the piezoelectric constant for this material is not yet calibrated at high pressures, stresses were estimated from the measured charges and measureable values were in the range 4-350 MPa.
Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Novel ABC Miktoarm Star Terpolymers
- A novel synthesis for ABC miktoarm star terpolymers and their self-assembly into complex superstructures in aqueous solution are described within this thesis. To this aim a modular route for such materials was developed, combining anionic polymerization and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. At the example of ABC miktoarm star terpolymers and an ABA’ miktoarm star copolymer containing a poly(N-methyl-2-vinypyridinium iodide) (P2VPq) segment, the counterion-mediated superstructure-formation of complex shaped aggregates was thoroughly investigated.
The key compound of the combinatorial synthesis is the newly synthesized 4-alkyne-substitued diphenylethylene derivative 1-[(4-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)ethynyl)phenyl]-1-phenylethylene (“click-DPE”). This was applied in sequential anionic polymerization to prepare well-defined alkyne mid-functional diblock copolymers composed of polybutadiene (PB) as first and poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (PtBMA), poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP), or poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) as second block. The alkyne-midfunctional diblock copolymers were afterwards conjugated with azido-functional polystyrenes (PS), poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), PtBMA and PDMAEMA to successfully obtain different novel ABC miktoarm star terpolymers with narrow molecular weight distributions.
For an ABC miktoarm star terpolymer consisting of arms of PB, PtBMA and P2VP it was demonstrated that after quaternization with methyl iodide (yielding BVqT) and dialysis to water the nature of the counterion allows for manipulation of the obtained structures. The miktoarm star architecture together with iodide as counterion is essential for this directed self-assembly. Transformation of iodide to triiodide, via the addition of iodine before dialysis to water, decreases the hydrophilicity of the P2VPq corona and therefore induces the directed self-assembly of spherical micelles with a PB/PtBMA core, into cylinders, superstructures thereof and finally barrel-shaped aggregates of up to 1 µm with an internal lamellar fine structure. Based on their appearance in transmission electron micrographs these were termed “woodlouse” aggregates. The compact particles consist of alternating lamellae of a partially demixed PB/PtBMA phase and a swollen P2VPq phase.
The general applicability of this counterion-mediated hierarchical self-assembly was furthermore demonstrated by using two other miktoarm star systems. For three ABC miktoarm star terpolymers of different composition, consisting of PB, PS and P2VPq segments (BVqS), a dependence of the morphology on the fraction of the hydrophilic block was determined, in analogy to diblock copolymers. For long P2VPq blocks stacked lamellar/disk-like structures evolve from micellar building units. In contrast, a short P2VPq segment yields multilamellar vesicles via fusion of vesicular primary building blocks. The vesicle walls are supposed to consist of a lamellar structure with the PB phase in the centre, shielded from the P2VPq corona by thin PS layers. At the example of one BVqS miktoarm star terpolymer the successful formation of nanohybrids containing gold nanoparticles within the P2VPq phase is demonstrated.
In the second system the low-Tg PB segment was replaced by a second PS block of different length (SVqS’). Even though vesicles serve as initial building units, the triiodide-induced superstructure formation leads to anisotropic aggregation of deformed vesicles, rather than to the fusion into multilamellar vesicles. This is attributed to the two glassy PS core blocks which minimize the dynamics during self-assembly and allow only minor rearrangement of the aggregated structures. Similar to the “woodlouse” aggregates from BVqT, lamellar structured particles of elongated shape were obtained from SVqS’, despite vesicles serving as primary building units. Consequently, the presented triiodide-directed self-assembly into complex superstructures is not restricted to miktoarm star polymers containing a low-Tg segment, as the rearrangement processes take place during the dialysis process, where the organic co-solvent enables sufficient mobility of the core-forming blocks.
Besides the introduction of a novel synthetic approach for the construction of miktoarm star terpolymers and the synthetic advance of the alkyne-functionalized DPE, the presented triiodide-mediated superstructure formation represents an interesting concept for directed self-assembly processes.
Struktur-/Funktionsbeziehung rekombinant hergestellter Proteine aus dem Byssusfaden der Miesmuschel Mytilus galloprovincialis
- Marine Muscheln der Gezeitenzone, wie die Miesmuschel Mytilus galloprovincialis, haften mittels eines Byssus am Untergrund. Der Muschelbyssus besteht aus einzelnen Fäden, welche aufgrund von Strömungen und Wellengang extremen mechanischen Belastungen ausgeliefert sind und aus diesem Grund eine hohe Energieaufnahmefähigkeit besitzen. Unter anderem dieser Umstand macht die Byssusfäden zu einem interessanten biologischen Material. Byssusfäden gliedern sich in drei morphologisch unterscheidbare Abschnitte mit unterschiedlichen mechanischen Eigenschaften, einen elastischen proximalen Teil, einen distalen Teil mit hoher Steifigkeit und einen adhäsiven Plaque, welcher die Substratbindestelle darstellt. Der Byssus besteht fast ausschließlich aus Proteinen, wovon wiederum ein großer Teil des Fadens durch fibrilläre Kollagene repräsentiert ist, welche in eine Proteinmatrix eingebettet sind.
Nahezu alle Proteine des Byssusfadens weisen z. T. einen hohen Grad an posttranslationalen Modifikationen auf, allen voran die Hydroxylierung von Tyrosinen zu 3,4-Dihydroxy-phenylalaninen (DOPA). Diese Reste nehmen eine Schlüsselrolle für die kohäsiven und adhäsiven Eigenschaften der Byssusproteine ein. Ferner spielt die Oxidation von DOPA zum entsprechenden o-Chinon eine wichtige Rolle bei der Quervernetzung der Proteine im Zuge der Reifung bzw. chinonbasierter Gerbung (quinone tanning) der Fäden. Diese Reaktion wird von einer im Byssusfaden detektierten Catecholoxidase katalysiert, von der bis dato jedoch keine Aminosäuresequenz bekannt war. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde erstmalig die Sequenz einer solchen mutmaßlichen Byssuscatecholoxidase in einer cDNA-Bank des Muschelfußes identifiziert und eingehend bioinformatisch hinsichtlich Lokalisierung und potenzieller Tertiärstruktur charakterisiert. Das entsprechende Protein weist einige Charakteristika auf, die die Identität mit einer von J. H. Waite aus dem Byssusfaden isolierten Catecholoxidase wahrscheinlich machen. Neben einer katalytischen Domäne, welche Homologie zu bekannten Catecholoxidasen bzw. Tyrosinasen aufweist, zeigt das Protein ferner weitere spezielle Bereiche, die eine strukturelle Beteiligung des Proteins am Byssusfaden nahelegen.
Den Hauptteil der Arbeit stellt die Analyse eines der bekannten Matrixproteine dar, des Proximalen Fadenmatrixproteins 1 (PTMP1), welches zwei Von-Willebrand-Faktor Typ A-ähnliche (VWA) Domänen besitzt. Hierzu wurde zunächst die Sequenz von PTMP1 aus einer cDNA-Bank des Muschelfußes isoliert und kloniert. Anschließend erfolgte die heterologe Expression und rekombinante Produktion des Proteins und einiger davon abgeleiteten Varianten in E. coli. Da alle Proteine in Form unlöslicher bakterieller Inclusion Bodies gebildet wurden, erfolgten die Etablierung einer Reinigungs- und Rückfaltungsstrategie sowie die chromatographische Analyse und spektroskopische Charakterisierung. Dabei wies PTMP1 zwei monomere Isoformen mit unterschiedlicher Disulfidverbrückung auf. Die Kristallstruktur von PTMP1, welche die erste bekannte Kristallstruktur eines Byssusproteins darstellt, zeigte eine neuartige Anordnung der beiden VWA-Domänen, welche dabei durch einen hochgradig stabilisierten Linker verbunden sind. Ferner konnte im Kristall die Bindung zweier Zinkionen an PTMP1 nachgewiesen werden, wobei jedoch nur das MIDAS-Motiv der A1-Domäne von PTMP1, jedoch nicht das der A2-Domäne diese Bindung aufwies. Die zweite Bindestelle wurde stattdessen im Bereich des Domänenlinkers detektiert. PTMP1 wies eine außergewöhnliche strukturelle Stabilität auf, insbesondere gegenüber thermischer Denaturierung. Die zuvor postulierte Fähigkeit von PTMP1 zur Bindung von Kollagenen konnte bestätigt und vertiefend analysiert werden. Dabei zeigte sich ein signifikanter Einfluss der Bindung von der
Ionenstärke, sodass von elektrostatischen Interaktionen zwischen PTMP1 und Kollagen ausgegangen werden kann. Darüber hinaus besitzt PTMP1 die Fähigkeit zur Bindung tripelhelikaler kollagenartiger Strukturen. Die geordnete Assemblierung präformierter Kollagenfibrillen erwies sich in Anwesenheit von PTMP1 als signifikant gestört. Darüber hinaus beeinflusst PTMP1 die Bildung von Fibrillen aus löslichem Kollagen, was eine Beteiligung dieses Matrixproteins an der Assemblierung der Byssuskollagene und somit einen Einfluss auf die mechanischen Eigenschaften des proximalen Byssusfadenteils nahelegt.
Structural and electronic properties of transition metal nanoalloys and magnetic compounds
- In transition metal clusters, potentially profitable technological applications and fascinating fundamental questions are closely connected. Bimetallic nanoalloys, e.g., have become increasingly popular as their performance in catalysis is often superior to their pure counterparts. Exemplary for this are gold-platinum (Au-Pt) nanoalloys that have been used as highly potent catalysts in electrocatalysis and in a variety of oxidation reactions. However, the mere existence of Au-Pt nanoalloys is astonishing, as Au and Pt cannot be mixed in bulk over a wide range of compositions. Furthermore, how a combination of Au and Pt in nanoalloys results in their special properties has not yet been determined conclusively.
It has been shown in empirical simulations and first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations that Au-Pt nanoalloys preferably arrange in a core-shell mixing pattern with Au forming a shell around a Pt core. This is in contradiction to many experimental studies that report the formation of solid solutions of Au and Pt. In the present work, this seeming discrepancy is addressed by simulating x-ray diffraction patterns that are experimentally used to characterize nanoalloys. It is shown that the interpretation of the diffraction patterns relies on questionable assumptions and therefore does not suffice as a definite characterization tool for Au-Pt nanoalloys.
To shed light on the special catalytic properties of Au-Pt nanoalloys under rather different experimental conditions, a thorough investigation of their electronic and structural properties has been carried out. It is found that features favorable for catalysis in Au-Pt nanoalloys emerge as a consequence of combining two fundamental properties: Pt contributes a high density of states close to the Fermi level, which promotes chemical activity. Au increases the structural flexibility of the Au-Pt system, which might be beneficial for the formation of active and element-specific binding sites as well as regeneration of the catalyst after the reaction.
Although DFT offers an attractive compromise between computational effort and accuracy for a theoretical description of Au-Pt nanoalloys, other transition metal compounds severely challenge existing DFT approximations. Manganese (Mn) doped silicon (Si) clusters represent an ideal model system to study the interaction of a single magnetic impurity with a semiconducting host both experimentally and theoretically. The transition from exohedral (lowly coordinated) to endohedral (highly coordinated) doping that occurs for Si clusters with more than ten atoms, is accompanied by complete quenching of the magnetic moment of Mn. We show that MnSi11+, the smallest endohedral cluster found in experiment, suffers strongly from a well-known general problem of most DFT approximations: the self-interaction error. Finally, a universal correlation between magnetic moment and the coordination of the Mn dopant is established that can be generalized to extended systems and suggests a route to stabilize the magnetic moment of bulk Mn-Si compounds.
Soil erosion and conservation potential of row crop farming in mountainous landscapes of South Korea
- Soils play an essential role for mankind because they provide fundamental ecosystem services required for human life, primarily for the production of food by providing the environment for plant growth. However, soils worldwide became highly threatened by human induced degradation, especially as a consequence of accelerated erosion by water during recent decades. In consideration of climate change and an increasing food demand of a rising population, there is an urgent need to conserve the soil resources by implementing effective erosion control measures for agricultural production. The effective implementation of those measures strongly depends on the specific conditions of particular regions and requires the analysis of the existing farming systems and their capability for erosion control.
Objective of this thesis is the analysis of the major agricultural practices applied for row crop cultivation in mountainous watersheds of South Korea with respect to water erosion and the identification of their conservation potential. Our first two studies analyze the subsurface flow processes, the runoff patterns, and the associated erosion rates of the widely applied plastic covered ridge-furrow system (plastic mulch), and our third study investigates the impact of herbicide applications on erosion associated with conventional and organic farming. To analyze the flow processes induced by the plastic mulch cultivation, we conducted four irrigation experiments on potato fields that represent a smooth surface, uncovered ridges, and plastic covered ridges with and without a developed crop canopy. With an automatic sprinkler, we irrigated small plots with a dye tracer solution of Brilliant Blue and potassium iodide, collected surface runoff, and excavated soil profiles to visualize the subsurface flow patterns, which were subsequently analyzed by image index functions. We found that the ridge-furrow system, especially when ridges are covered with plastic, decreased infiltration and generated high amounts of surface runoff, whereas a developed crop canopy increased infiltration due to interception and stem flow. The analyses of the subsurface flow patterns show that the plastic covered ridge-furrow system induces preferential infiltration in furrows and planting holes due to its topography and the impermeable covers, but that the impact on flow processes in the soils is relatively small compared to the impact on runoff generation. To identify the patterns of overland flow and the erosion rates associated with the plastic mulch system, we installed runoff collectors to monitor runoff and sediment transport of two potato fields with concave and convex topographies, and we applied the EROSION 3D model to compare the plastic covered ridge-furrow system to uncovered ridges and a smooth surface. We found that plastic mulch cultivation considerably increases soil erosion compared to uncovered ridges as a consequence of high amounts of surface runoff. Our results show that the ridge-furrow system concentrated overland flow on the concave field, resulting in severe gully erosion, but prevented flow accumulation and reduced erosion on the convex field, which demonstrates that the effect of this cultivation strategy is primarily controlled by the field topography and its orientation. To analyze the effects of conventional and organic farming on water erosion, we measured multiple vegetation parameters of crops and weeds of conventional and organic farms cultivating bean, potato, radish, and cabbage, and we simulated long-term soil loss rates with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). We found that organic farming reduced erosion for radish, as a result of an increased weed biomass due to the absence of herbicides, but that it increased erosion for potato due to lower crop coverage, presumably as a consequence of crop-weed competition or herbivory associated with the absence of agricultural chemicals. Although we demonstrated that a developed weed cover in the furrows can potentially decrease the erosion risk for row crops, our results show that the average annual erosion rates of both farming systems exceed by far any tolerable soil loss.
In consideration of the generally high soil loss found in our studies, we conclude that the applied farming practices are not capable for effective erosion control and soil conservation in this region. However, based on our findings, we could identify possible modifications of those practices that can help to reduce the risk of erosion in the future. We recommend perforated plastic covers for ridges to reduce runoff generation, and the orientation of the ridge-furrow system along the contours or towards field edges to prevent flow accumulation and gully formation. Additionally, we suggest residue mulching of furrows to protect the soil surface from overland flow, and the cultivation of winter cover crops after harvest to maintain a better soil cover throughout the year.
Mesostrukturierte Metalloxide und Polyoxometallate mittels Ionogener Diblockcopolymere - Synthese, Charakterisierung und Anwendung
- Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, Metalloxide und Polyoxometallate auf der Mesoebene mittels ionogener Diblockcopolymere zu strukturieren, zu charakterisieren und anwendungsspezifisch zu testen. Dabei wurden vor allem drei bisher bekannte Probleme, die mit der Mesostrukturierung von Metalloxiden einhergehen, umgangen.
Zum einen führt die schnelle Hydrolyse und Kondensation reaktiver Metallalkoxid-Precursoren zu unstrukturierbar großen Molekülen. Zum anderen ist oftmals ein direkter Zugang zu der gewünschten Morphologie aufgrund der mizellaren Dynamik des Templates, die von äußeren Einflüssen, wie pH-Wert, Konzentration oder Salzkonzentration abhängt, erschwert. Das dritte Problem ist die schlechte Anbindung des anorganischen Precursors an das organische Templat, was auf schwache, attraktive Wechselwirkungen zwischen beiden Materialien zurückzuführen ist. Generell müssen Hydrolyse, Kondensation und Hybridbildung zwingend synchron ablaufen, um eine Makrophasenseparation zuverlässig zu vermeiden.
Um diese Makrophasenseparation zu vermeiden, wurde am Lehrstuhl AC I ein neuartiges Konzept entwickelt, in dem alle drei Probleme adressiert und gelöst werden konnten. Diese Lösungsansätze werden nachfolgend entsprechend ihrer oben aufgeführten Reihenfolge erklärt. Zunächst wurden anionische oligomere Cluster oder pre-synthetisierte Kolloide als anorganische Precursoren verwendet, anstelle schnell hydrolyisierender und kondensierender Metallalkoxide. Die Cluster besetzen energetische Minima auf dem Weg zu ausgedehnten Oxidstrukturen und neigen somit nicht zur Kondensation. Weiterhin konnte mit 1-dimensionalen kernquervernetzten Polymerbürsten die mizellare Dynamik umgangen werden, da die rigiden zylindrischen Polymerbürsten invariant gegenüber äußeren Einflüssen sind. Außerdem besitzen diese 1-dimensionalen Nanoobjekte ionisierbare Seitenarme, welche einfach protoniert werden können und somit über starke Coulomb-Wechselwirkungen eine stabile Anbindung der anorganischen Oxide an das organische Templat gewährleisten.
Dieses Konzept der ladungsinduzierten Mesostrukturierung mittels molekularer oxidischer Precursoren wurde innerhalb dieser Doktorarbeit weitergeführt, deren Ergebnisse nachfolgend kurz dargestellt werden.
Zuerst wurde am Beispiel von pre-synthetisierten Rutil- und Anatas-Kolloiden gezeigt, dass nicht nur anionische oligomere Cluster, sondern auch Kolloide in 1-dimensionale Poylmerstrukturen eingelagert werden können. Die Kristallstruktur von Rutil und Anatas konnte durch Verwendung unterschiedlicher Säuren (HCl: Rutil; Essigsäure: Anatas) bei der Hydrolyse des Titanalkoxid-Precursors gezielt eingestellt werden. Diese TiO2-Polymorphe besitzen bei niedrigen pH-Werten eine positive Oberflächenladung. Polystyrolsulfonsäure-block-polyallylmethacrylat (PSS-b-PAMA) wurde in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Lehrstuhl MCII als zylindrischer anionischer Antagonist synthetisiert. Die PSS-Seitenarme sind selbst bei niedrigen pH-Werten noch negativ geladen. Die resultierenden 1-dimensionalen Hybridmaterialien besaßen dieselbe Kristallstruktur wie der Precursor, eine homogene Verteilung der Nanopartikel in der Polymermatrix und nach Trocknung eine verschlaufte, sphaghetti-ähnliche Mikrostruktur mit relativ hoher spezifischer Oberfläche.
In einer detaillierteren Studie wurde zusätzlich der Einfluss der Länge der zylindrischen Template auf die Packung der 1-dimensionalen Nanoobjekte und auf die daraus resultierende spezifische Oberfläche untersucht. Dabei wurden zylindrische Hybridmaterialien aus Heteropolysäuren des Keggin-Typ Polyoxometallates (Keggin POM), die in 1-dimensionale Polybutadien-block-poly(2-vinylpyridin) (PB-b-P2VP) Polymerbürsten eingelagert wurden, verwendet. Hierbei zeigte sich insbesondere, dass eine kurze Ultraschallbehandlungsdauer das Aspektverhältnis der 1-dimensionalen Strukturen nur gering verändert, die Dispersion der anisotropen Hybridmaterialien perfektioniert und die interpartikulären Kontaktpunkte innerhalb der Mikrostruktur minimiert. Als Ergebnis wurde hierfür die maximal zugängliche spezifische Oberfläche erhalten. Eine Ausweitung dieses Syntheseprotokolls auf Keggin POMs mit unterschiedlicher Ladung, Heteroatomen und Metallkationen konnte auch erfolgreich durchgeführt werden. Katalysetests dieser Hybridzylinder offenbarten dabei Unterschiede in der Aktivität dieser Nanostäbchen in der sauer katalysierten Zersetzung von Isopropanol.
Angliedernd an die ladungsinduzierten Mesostrukturierung wurde ein neues Synthesekonzept zu invers hexagonal geordneten Polymer/ Keggin POM Mesostrukturen erarbeitet. Als organisches Templat wurde Polybutadien-block-poly(2-dimethylaminoethylmethacrylat) (PB-b-PDMAEMA) mit einem hohen Polymerisations-grad des PB-Blockes synthetisiert. Als weitere Schlüsselfaktoren erwiesen sich neben diesem hohen Polymerisationsgrad des PB-Blockes die Wahl des Lösungsmittel und der Keggin POM-Anteil. Um dieses Material auch für Anwendungen wie der Katalyse ansprechend zu machen, muss das polymere Templat am besten vollständig entfernt werden, um eine möglichst hohe Zugänglichkeit der aktiven Zentren zu gewährleisten. Dies wurde sowohl thermisch als auch mit aggressiveren Methoden versucht. Zum einen wurde durch systematische Studien zur thermischen Entfernung des Templates gezeigt, dass die Mesostruktur kollabiert bevor der Kohlenstoff komplett entfernt werden kann. Zum anderen wurde durch aggressivere Methoden, wie Plasmaätzen, erfolgreich der Zugang zu den Mesoporen an Ultradünnschnitten (<50 nm) realisiert. An die thermische Behandlung reihte sich auch die Umwandlung der geordneten Mesophasen in geordnete Carbid/ Kohlenstoff-Nanokomposite an. Letztere sind für Katalyse oder Ladungsspeicherung auch wissenschaftlich interessant. Für die Umwandlung der geordneten oxidischen Mesophasen in Carbid/ Kohlenstoff Nanokomposite wurde nicht versucht das polymere Templat in den Poren zu entfernen, sondern es wurde zum ersten Mal als Kohlenstoffquelle in der Carbidisierungsreaktion verwendet. Folglich lieferten die hergestellten geordneten Mesophasen einen direkten und einfachen Zugang zu porösen Carbid/ Kohlenstoff Nanokompositen und zeigten katalytische Aktivität in der Zersetzung von Ammoniak.
Diese Arbeit ist eine kumulative Dissertation. Die detaillierten Ergebnisse werden in den angehängten Publikationen beschrieben.
Janus Particles at Interfaces
- This thesis describes the synthesis and the characterization of both polymeric and hybrid Janus particles of well-defined size, shape and functionality and their high potential for applications in colloidal and material science.
Soft Janus particles, based on polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (SBM) triblock terpolymers, represent a fascinating group of polymeric materials because their size, shape and functionality directly influences their adsorption behavior at liquid-liquid interfaces.
The adsorption behavior of Janus cylinders at liquid-liquid interfaces was studied using the pendant drop technique. The interfacial tension decreases with increasing Janus cylinder length and concentration. From the time evolution of the interfacial tension the characteristics of early and late stages of the Janus cylinder adsorption were specified. A series of TEM images of the liquid-liquid interface taken during the cylinder adsorption confirm these observations. Janus cylinders behave differently at the interfaces as compared to the block terpolymer precursor SBM and to cylinders of comparable sizes with a polybutadiene core and a homogeneous polystyrene shell.
Understanding the influence of particle size and architecture on the adsorption process is a very important criterion for an efficient industrial use of the Janus particles. To establish the effect of the Janus character together with the effect of particle shape on the interfacial activity and orientation of the Janus particles at an liquid-liquid interface, we present a combination of experimental and simulation data together with detailed studies elucidating the mechanisms governing the adsorption process of Janus spheres, Janus cylinders and Janus discs. These studies demonstrate that changes in the geometry of the particles strongly influence the stabilization of the liquid-liquid interface. As the shape changes from spheres to discs and cylinders, different adsorption kinetics, different packing behavior, different energy barriers and finally different equilibrium values for the interfacial tension can be found.
Another main point of this thesis was the synthesis of functional and/or stimuli-responsive hybrid core-shell-corona Janus particles based on inorganic colloids and the characterization of their unique properties and fascinating self-assembly behavior. The first step towards these Janus particles was to understand in detail the formation of core-shell-corona particles with a homogeneous corona, and then in a second step, to use our new knowledge to create hybrid core-shell-corona Janus particles.
We developed an easy and completely reproducible preparation and characterization of the solution behavior and functional properties of superparamagnetic and/or fluorescent, thermo-responsive inorganic/organic hybrid nanogels with an intermediate protective silica shell and an interactive polymer layer. These well-defined multifunctional nanogels were prepared via two consecutive encapsulation processes of superparamagnetic and/or fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals with a silica layer and a crosslinked and responsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) corona. The precise adjustment of the conditions allows to achieve a reliable encapsulation and to either entrap several particles or single ones and to precisely tailor the thickness of the silica shell. Full functionality of the encapsulated nanocrystals is retained, but excellent wettability, biocompatibility, flexible surface chemistry, increased chemical stability are implemented together with a thermo-responsive polymer corona.
On the basis of our well-characterized core-shell particles we took advantage of the variable surface chemistry of the silica shell to combine the properties of the superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticles with the catalytic character of nickel complexes in hybrid core-shell-corona nanoparticles forming heterogeneous nanocatalysts. In that way a heterogeneous catalyst was created for facile product separation in the catalytic conversion of olefins.
In the next level, an efficient strategy for the large-scale synthesis of well-defined hybrid Janus particles with a silica core (˂˂ 100 nm) and a stimuli-responsive PDMAEMA hemicorona was developed. The synthesis is based on a modified version of the Pickering emulsion technique in combination with surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) in a “grafting from” approach. First, 30 nm silica nanoparticles are immobilized at the interface of sub-micrometer sized droplets of poly(vinyl acetate). Since the nanoparticles are partially embedded, one hemisphere is protected. After the modification with an ATRP-initiator and the detachment of the modified silica particles, PDMAEMA was grafted from one hemisphere via ATRP. The obtained Janus nanoparticles are well-defined in size and shape and show stimuli-responsive structural changes depending on pH and temperature.
Iron in oxides, silicates and alloys under extreme pressure-temperature conditions
- (1) There is a general agreement, that magnesium silicate perovskite (Pv) comprises around 80 vol% of the Earth's lower-mantle, making it by volume the most abundant mineral in our planet, and and there is no doubt that Pv in the mantle contains Fe and Al. However, the exact concentrations are unknown, as well as the effect of pressure on physical properties of Pv at conditions of Earth lower mantle. In our study we investigate Pv with one of the less explored substitution Mg2+A+Si4+B→Fe3+A+Al3+B. Here we explore as a function of pressure and temperature the crystal structure of the material, the distribution of chemical elements between different crystallographic sites and the evolution the spin state of ferric iron, as one of crucial parameters determining electrical and radiative conductivity of the Earth's lower mantle. We perform single-crystal x-ray diffraction on magnesium silicate perovskite with the composition Mg0.63Fe0.37Si0.63Al0.37O3 (MgFeAlPv) using a combination of in-situ diamond anvil cell technique and laser heating in order to simulate the extreme conditions of the Earth's lower mantle. We provide a complete description of the behavior of MgFeAlPv in terms of crystal structure and ferric iron occupying its dodecahedral (A-)site. We observe no spin transition of ferric iron at A-site, confirming theoretical predictions and recent experimental observations. However, even upon heating MgFeAlPv samples to 1800 K at ~78 GPa we see no indication of a spin crossover or a pressure/temperature induced redistribution of ferric iron and aluminum between the different crystallographic sites as suggested previously. We combine these data with high pressure-high temperature measurements to obtain a thermal equation of state. (2) As a model Fe-O system, magnetite is a mixed valence iron oxide incorporating both ferric and ferrous iron. Being essential part of some sedimentary (banded iron formations) and igneous rocks, magnetite can be subjected to high pressure in natural systems, for instance, during subduction of oceanic crust, or during serpentinization (metamorphic reaction). In order to shed light on the complex physical properties of magnetite under compression we conducted a combined single crystal x-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy at pressures below 25 GPa. We find no evidence for the transition from inverse to normal spinel in magnetite. Analyzing the collected Mössbauer data, we show that a high spin – intermediate spin transition cannot occur in magnetite in the pressure range of 10-20 GPa, and finally, based on a careful analysis of the data and results reported in the literature, we provide a model consistently describing the behavior of electronic and magnetic properties of magnetite in terms of a gradual charge delocalization induced by pressure. (3) Our study of wüstite (FexO) is focused on the high pressure – low temperature phase diagram of the Fe-end member in the (Mg,Fe)O system. We perform high resolution neutron diffraction experiments in order to investigate the low temperature phase diagram of Fe0.925O and Fe0.94O. We determine the critical temperatures of antiferromagnetic ordering (the Neél temperature TN) and structural transitions (TS) of the two compounds. We report divergence of TN and TS as a function of pressure. We argue that a modification of the defect structure in wüstite can be invoked explaining the drastically different response of Fe0.925O and Fe0.94O to compression. With that we show that although ferric iron is a minor structural component of wüstite, it is an essential component of defect structures and induces profound effects on the low temperature phase diagram of wüstite. (3) We investigate effect of pressure (P) on the elastic and electronic properties of Fe, Fe0.9Ni0.1 hcp phases below 70 GPa. After processing our experimental data, we report a gradual decrease in the ratio of the hcp lattice parameters c/a for Fe in the pressure range below 45-50 GPa, and a non-linear behavior of Mössbauer isomer shift for hcp phases of pure Fe and Fe0.9Ni0.1, suggesting an isostructural transition in these phases. We investigate paramagnetic hcp Fe under compression by employing state-of-art calculations (LDA+DMFT) and including many-body correlation effects. Based on the results of the calculations, we predict an electronic topological transition (ETT). After comparing data on materials with already known ETT with our observations and theoretical predictions, we conclude that results obtained from the independent experimental measurements can be explained in the framework of an ETT. (4) The development of a portable laser heating system was a necessary requirement for our work done on minerals at conditions of Earth’s lower mantle in general, and for the study of magnesium silicate perovskite containing iron and aluminum in particular. The main advantages of the system developed are compactness, versatility for different in-house and synchrotron based techniques, including high pressure measurements of resistivity, Raman spectroscopy, energy and time-resolved Mössbauer spectroscopy, powder and single crystal x-ray diffraction, nuclear inelastic x-ray scattering, and x-ray absorption. These advantages, the low times of assembly, stable and homogeneous conditions for heating, in-situ measurement of sample temperature, as well as the direct visual control over the heating area distinguish our system from similar, but bulkier devices.
Investigations towards a better understanding of arsenic-sulfur speciation in aquatic environments: Formation, stability, structural characterization, and conflicting analyses
- Arsenic is a widespread contaminant of global concerns due to its neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Particularly critical is the speciation of arsenic, influencing its mobility, toxicity and retention capability. Recently, it was analytically proven that arsenic-sulfur (As-S) species play a dominant role for arsenic cycling in sulfidic systems. The geochemistry of As-S species is not well investigated, yet, and especially the nature of these species, thioarsenites vs. thioarsenates, has been under intense debate. The major objective of the present PhD work was to improve the current knowledge about As-S species by structural characterization, investigations of their occurrence, formation and transformation, and evaluation of the analytical techniques, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and ion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). By XAS it was shown that under strictly anoxic conditions thioarsenites form in arsenite-sulfide mixes with sulfide (SH-) excess and as co-occurring intermediates during acidic transformation of thioarsenates. Thioarsenites can be specified as highly labile, converting rapidly to thioarsenates in the presence of traces of oxygen, e.g. during standard IC-ICP-MS analyses. Excess hydroxide (OH-) either due to high pH or sample dilution in ultrapure water inhibits the formation of thioarsenites by SH--OH- competition. These facts make the current IC-ICP-MS method even under anoxic conditions unsuitable for thioarsenite analyses. However, thioarsenites were shown to be necessary intermediates for formation of thioarsenates. Thioarsenates determined in natural oxic systems are thus most likely the product of rapid in-situ thioarsenite oxidation. Direct thioarsenite determination is currently only possible by XAS with a limitation on > 5 mM-solutions for structural evaluations. The characteristic coordination and bond length (RAs-S 2.23-2.28 Å) makes thioarsenites distinguishable from thioarsenates (RAs-O 1.70 Å, RAs-S 2.13-2.18 Å). The individual thioarsenates are distinct in their coordination and absorption edge energies, successively decreasing about 1 eV per sulfur atom. Generally, the absorption edge energies decrease in the order arsenate > thioarsenates > arsenite > thioarsenites. This primary XAS-dataset enables the evaluation of (thio)arsenites and (thio)arsenates in mixed solutions. Despite the greater stability of thioarsenates vs. thioarsenites, they also have been shown to transform under certain conditions. Upon acidification they convert to thioarsenites (anoxic) or arsenite (oxic) with subsequent As-S precipitation. The presence of FeII in anoxic solutions or heating (80 °C) results in their decay to substantial amounts of arsenite. Thioarsenates are also easily oxidized by synthetic oxidants, air purging or naturally along hot spring drainage channels. For trithioarsenate, the major species of alkaline hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, two transformation processes have been identified: successive ligand exchange to arsenate, observed naturally and by using a strong oxidant, and the decay to arsenite (and trithioarsenate) in natural systems and under moderately reducing conditions. However, transformation under natural conditions was up to 500 times faster and is likely catalyzed by Thermocrinis spp.. Naturally important are also processes promoting mobilization or immobilization of arsenic from and at mineral surfaces. Arsenopyrite and orpiment belong to the most abundant (Fe-)As-S minerals with particular importance as host rocks for gold refractory. Oxidative leaching of both minerals yielded up to 50% thioarsenates. The release of thioarsenates from orpiment, at pH 7 and 12, is possibly caused by thioarsenite oxidation. Contrary, physisorption of OH- is the proposed mechanism for arsenopyrite with thioarsenate formation only at highly alkaline pH. The immobilization of monothioarsenate by sorption on ironhydroxide was less effective and kinetically slower compared to arsenate and arsenite. The presence of iron in As-S systems was hitherto considered to counteract thioarsenate occurrence. This was refuted by finding up to 17% thioarsenates in Czech spring waters. However, those Fe As S systems are a challenge for sample preservation. While acidification results in As-S precipitation and thioarsenate transformation, flash-freezing as preferred for thioarsenates induces ironhydroxide precipitation. An anoxic gas headspace, a strong matrix and an organic solvent supported the stability of pure thioarsenate solutions, whereas in the presence of iron a combination of EDTA-addition and cryo-preservation is required. Overall, the present PhD thesis reveals the importance of thioarsenites and thioarsenates for arsenic cycling. The results significantly increase the present knowledge on As-S geochemistry and help to define potential for future studies.
Impact of time and spatial averages on the energy balance closure
- Secondary circulations are large and relatively stationary eddies, which are caused by the surface heterogeneity and normally reside away from the ground. They are believed to be the cause of the energy balance closure problem at the earth's surface, because their contribution to the turbulent fluxes is missed by a fixed eddy-covariance tower measurement that has a typical averaging time of 30 minutes. In this thesis, data from the LITFASS-2003 experiment was used to investigate the impact of time and spatial averages on the energy balance closure. This data consisted of many observations over a large heterogeneous landscape that could generate secondary circulations; some of which might be still near the earth's surface.
For the time average analysis, the averaging time was extended to increase the possibility that secondary circulations were picked up by the sensor. Two approaches, which were the modified ogive analysis and the block ensemble average, were applied to analyze the data from ground-based measurements. The modified ogive analysis requiring a steady state condition, could extend the averaging time up to a few hours and suggested that an averaging time of 30 minutes was still overall sufficient for the eddy-covariance measurement over low vegetation. The block ensemble average, on the contrary, did not require a steady state condition, but could extend the averaging time to several days. However, this approach could only improve the energy balance closure for some sites during specific periods, when secondary circulations existed in the vicinity of the sensor. Based on this approach, it was found that the near-surface secondary circulations mainly transported sensible heat, which led to an alternative energy balance correction by the buoyancy flux ratio approach, in which the attribution of the residual depended on the relative contribution of the sensible heat flux to the buoyancy flux. The fraction of the residual attributed to the sensible heat flux by this energy balance correction was larger than in the energy balance correction that preserved the Bowen ratio.
In the spatial average analysis, two energy balance correction approaches, the buoyancy flux ratio and the Bowen ratio approaches, were applied to the area-averaged fluxes (composite fluxes) in order to include contribution from secondary circulations. These composite fluxes were aggregated from multiple ground-based measurements. The energy balance corrected fluxes were validated against the spatial average fluxes, which were measured by an aircraft and a large aperture scintillometer (LAS). In this validation, the backward Lagrangian footprint model was used to estimate the source area of the measurement. It was found that both energy balance correction approaches did improve the agreement between time and spatial averages fluxes. This suggested that the contribution from secondary circulations could be properly accounted by the energy balance correction.
All findings in this thesis, therefore, depict that secondary circulations significantly transport energy in the atmospheric surface layer. The energy balance correction, accomplished by using either the Bowen ratio approach or the buoyancy flux ratio approach, is necessary to estimate the actual vertical transport of energy at the earth's surface.