## Mathematik

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- Stability Analysis of Unconstrained Receding Horizon Control Schemes (2011)
- In this thesis we are concerned with receding horizon control (RHC), also known as model predictive control. In particular, schemes which neither incorporate terminal constraints nor costs are considered. Our goal is to ensure a relaxed Lyapunov inequality which allows to conclude asymptotic stability of the RHC closed loop and, in addition, to quantify the loss of performance in comparison to infinite horizon optimal control. To this end, a (stability) condition is derived based on a controllability assumption. Then, a sensitivity analysis is carried out with respect to the most important parameters in our RHC strategy: the prediction and the control horizon. Here, the proposed stability condition is exploited in order to deduce guidelines to suitably design receding horizon stage costs. Furthermore, symmetry and monotonicity properties are rigorously shown which pave the way in order to develop algorithms such that the prediction horizon and, thus, the computational costs can be reduced while maintaining a desired performance guarantee. Since many practically relevant discrete time systems are induced by sampled differential equations, effects linked to employing faster sampling and, thus, more accurate discretizations are analyzed. In this context a growth condition which may, e.g., reflect continuity properties, is introduced and the proposed methodology is generalized to this setting - a decisive step towards so called accumulated bounds which further improve our stability estimates and, thus, allow to derive tighter performance bounds. Moreover, the applicability and effectiveness of the presented results are demonstrated by several examples including a class of reaction diffusion equations.

- An exact column-generation approach for the lot-type design problem (2012)
- We consider a fashion discounter distributing its many branches with integral multiples from a set of available lot-types. For the problem of approximating the branch and size dependent demand using those lots we propose a tailored exact column generation approach assisted by fast algorithms for intrinsic subproblems, which turns out to be very efficient on our real-world instances.

- The Integrated Size and Price Optimization problem (2012)
- We present the Integrated Size and Price Optimization Problem (ISPO) for a fashion discounter with many branches. Based on a two-stage stochastic programming model with recourse, we develop an exact algorithm and a production-compliant heuristic that produces small optimality gaps. In a field study we show that a distribution of supply over branches and sizes based on ISPO solutions is significantly better than a one-stage optimization of the distribution ignoring the possibility of optimal pricing.

- Irreducible symplectic complex spaces (2012)
- In Chapter 1 we define period mappings of Hodge-de Rahm type for certain submersive, yet not necessarily locally topologically trivial, morphisms of complex manifolds. Generalizing Griffiths's theory, we interpret the differential of such period mappings as the composition of the Kodaira-Spencer map and a map derived from the sheaf cohomological cup product and the contraction of vector fields with differential forms. In Chapter 2 of the text, we consider a submersive morphism $f\colon X\to S$ of complex spaces which is compactified by a proper, flat, and Kähler morphism $\bar f\colon \bar X\to S$. Taking into account the codimension of $\bar X\setminus X$ in $\bar X$, we draw conclusions about the degeneration behavior of the relative Frölicher spectral sequence of the morphism $f$ and about the local freeness of the modules $\mathrm{R}^qf_*(\Omega^p_f)$; our results can be viewed as relative generalizations of a theorem of Takeo Ohsawa. In our final Chapter 3, we employ the upshots of the preceding two chapters in order to deduce a local Torelli theorem for irreducible symplectic complex spaces. As an application of the local Torelli theorem, we prove that irreducible symplectic complex spaces whose codimension of the singular locus does not deceed $4$ satisfy the so-called Fujiki relation.

- Shape Calculus Applied to Elliptic Optimal Control Problems (2012)
- This thesis is devoted to the analysis of a very simple, pointwisely state-constrained optimal control problem of an elliptic partial differential equation. The transfer of an idea from the field of optimal control of ordinary differential equations, which proved fruitful with respect to both theoretical treatment and design of algorithms, is the starting point. On this, the state inequality constraint, which is regarded as an equation inside the active set, is differentiated in order to obtain a control law. A geometrical splitting of the constraints is necessary to carry over this approach to the chosen model problem. The associated assertions are rigorously ensured. The subsequent derivation of a control law in the sense of the abovementioned idea yields an equivalent reformulation of the model problem. The active set appears as an independent and equal optimization variable in this new formulation. Thereby a new class of optimization problem is established, which forms a hybrid of optimal control and shape-/topology optimization: set optimal control. This class is integrated into the very abstract framework of optimization on vector bundles; for that purpose some important notions from the field of calculus on manifolds are introduced and related with shape calculus. First order necessary conditions of the set optimal control problem are derived by means of two different approaches: on the one hand a reduced approach via the elimination of the state variable, which uses a formulation as bilevel optimization problem, is pursued, and on the other hand a formal Lagrange principle is presented. A comparison of the newly obtained optimality conditions with those known form literature yields relations between the Lagrange multipliers; in particular, it becomes apparent that the new approach involves higher regularity. The comparison is embedded to the theory of partial differential-algebraic equations, and it is shown that the new approach yields a reduction of the differential index. Upon investigation of the gradient and the second covariant derivative of the objective functional different Newton- and trial algorithms are presented and discussed in detail. By means of a comparison with the well-established primal-dual active set method different benefits of the new approach become apparent. In particular, the new algorithms can be formulated in function space without any regularization. Some numerical tests illustrate that an efficient and competitive solution of state-constrained optimal control problems is achieved. The whole work gives numerous references to different mathematical disciplines and encourages further investigations. All in all, it should be regarded as a first step towards a more comprehensive perspective on state-constrained optimal control of partial differential equations.

- Geometrische Konstruktionen linearer Codes über Galois-Ringen der Charakteristik 4 von hoher homogener Minimaldistanz (2012)
- In dieser Arbeit werden vier neue unendliche Serien von linearen Codes über Galois-Ringen der Charakteristik 4 konstruiert. Hinsichtlich der Minimaldistanz übertreffen die Gray-Bilder der konstruierten Codes alle bekannten vergleichbaren linearen Codes. In den Konstruktionen wird die Theorie der projektiven Hjelmslev-Geometrien, der Assoziationsschemata sowie der symmetrischen Bilinearformen in endlichdimensionalen GF(2)-Vektorräumen benutzt.

- THE INDEX THEOREM FOR QUASI-TORI (2013)
- The Index theorem for holomorphic line bundles on complex tori asserts that some cohomology groups of a line bundle vanish according to the numbers of negative and positive eigenvalues of the associated hermitian form. In this thesis, this theorem is generalized to quasi-tori, i.e. connected complex abelian Lie groups which are not necessarily compact. In view of the Remmert–Morimoto decomposition of quasi-tori as well as the Künneth formula, it suffices to consider only Cousin-quasi-tori, i.e. quasi-tori which have no non-constant holomorphic functions. The Index theorem is generalized to holomorphic line bundles, both linearizable and non-linearizable, on Cousin-quasi-tori using L2-methods coupled with the Kazama–Dolbeault isomorphism and Bochner–Kodaira formulas.

- Integrated size and price optimization for a fashion retailer (2013)
- This thesis is the result of a collaboration with a German fashion retailer which lasted for several years. The aim was the development of a decision-support system for the supply of the about 1300 branches in Germany. There are some specialties about the situation at our industrial partner: The branches are supplied by prepackaged size-assortments of a product which we call lot-types. With the objective to economize handling cost, these lot-types are already composed at the respective low-wage country where the article is also produced. The expense at the German central warehouse is further reduced by allowing only four or five different lot-types for the delivery of one product. Moreover, each branch is supplied by a certain quantity of a single lot-type. For the most fashion articles replenishment is not possible. The sales success of a product is a priori unknown. Historical sales data can only be used on a higher aggregation level, e.g., the average historical demand on the commodity group level. Demand estimation is therefore very vague. Under- and oversupplies are unavoidable. Influence over the sales process is possible by marking down prices. To compensate for an oversupply of a product, weekly the price can be reduced to predefined price steps which depend on the starting price of the product. Mark-downs for an article are performed simultaneously for all branches and sizes. Within the cooperation mathematical problem formulations with the aim to minimize measures for the deviation of supply from estimated demand had been developed. In these measures the selling process is not or only very vaguely regarded. Now we include the possibility of marking down prices during the selling time already when deciding on the supply. The result is the two-stage stochastic program ISPO: The so-called first stage decision is the determination of a supply policy. The second stage decision, or recourse, is the decision on mark-downs during the selling time. ISPO yields an expected revenue maximizing supply strategy and corresponding optimal mark-down strategies for the considered scenarios. ISPO it too complex to solve it via standard approaches. Customized methods had to be devised to solve ISPO. On the one side we present an exact solver for benchmarking. On the other side a fast heuristic was developed for practical use at our partner. The basic idea of our exact solver is to enumerate all possible mark-down strategies. With this it is possible to reduce ISPO to a former formulation for the optimization of supply, which can be solved via standard approaches. In practice enumeration of all valid mark-down strategies for the purpose of solving ISPO is for reasons of time impossible. Therefore the idea is extended to a customized Branch&Bound approach. In this context we derived dual bounds for general two-stage stochastic programs which are based on the so-called wait-and-see solution from stochastic programming. We show that in general our bounds are tighter. The heuristic, beginning with a valid second stage decision, determines an optimal first stage decision and alternates between solving the first stage and the second stage until convergence is reached. The optimality gap is small enough to justify a practical use at the industrial partner. In practice the by ISPO proposed mark-down strategies are not applied; instead latest sales figures are exploited. According to these and an updated demand estimation weekly a new optimal mark-down strategy for the remaining selling time of the product is determined. For this purpose we propose an algorithm which relies on dynamic programming and tries to exclude non-optimal solutions a priori by dominance checks. ISPO, more precisely our heuristic approach, together with the weekly adaption of the mark-down strategy forms our decision support system for integrated size and price optimization DISPO. We tested DISPO in a five-month field study, performed as a statistical experiment, at our partner where pairs of similar branches were compared. At one branch of each pair, the test branch, supply and mark-down decisions came from ISPO. With respect to latest sales figures the mark-down decisions were weekly updated via our dynamic programming approach. At the other branch, the control branch, these decisions were not integrated: Supply was determined according to a strategy resulting from a former model that disregarded the selling process and mark-downs were handled manually by our partner. For the branches at which the decisions of ISPO were implemented an average raise of 1.5 percentage points of relative revenue was observed.

- Über eine Erweiterung der Methode von Soshnikov zur Untersuchung des größten Eigenwerts auf unsymmetrische Verteilungen (2013)
- Seit der Entdeckung des Halbkreisgesetzes durch Wigner werden reell-symmetrische Zufallsmatrix-Ensembles untersucht. Soshnikov hat in einer bahnbrechenden Arbeit gezeigt, dass für Wigner-Ensembles $A_n=(\xi_\ij)_{1\le i\le j\le n}$ mit symmetrisch verteilten Einträgen die Verteilung des größten Eigenwerts in einer geeigneten Skalierung für $n\to\infty$ universelles Verhalten zeigt und schwach gegen die Tracy-Widom-Verteilung, die Verteilung des Gauß'schen orthogonalen Ensembles, konvergiert. Für den Beweis nutzt Soshnikov die Momentenmethode. Hierbei wird die Analyse der Verteilungsfunktion des größten Eigenwerts auf die Analyse von Erwartungswerten von Spuren hoher Matrixpotenzen zurückgeführt (die Exponenten wachsen mit $n^{2/3}$). Die Spuren werden via $\tr A_n^{p_n}=\sum_{(i_0,\ldots,i_{p-1})\in[n]^p}\xi_{i_0,i_1}\xi_{i_1,i_2}\ldots\xi_{i_{p-1},i_0}$ als Summe über geschlossene Pfade kombinatorisch interpretiert. In der Analyse gilt es herauszufinden, welche Klassen von Pfaden (die mit den Momenten der Matrixeinträge in Verbindung stehen) die Spuren in der Asymptotik $n\to\infty$ dominieren. Es stellt sich heraus das dies Pfade sind, die jede ihrer Kanten genau zweimal durchlaufen. Das bedeutet, dass die Spuren asymptotisch nur von den für alle Matrixeinträge gleichen zweiten Momenten abhängen, sie sind also asymptotisch für alle betrachteten Ensembles universell. Diese Methode wird in der vorliegenden Arbeit auf Wigner-Ensembles mit nicht notwendig symmetrischen Verteilungen der Einträge erweitert. Die Kombinatorik ist in diesem Fall komplexer. Resultat der Arbeit ist, dass die Methode von Soshnikov funktioniert, wenn folgende Bedingungen erfüllt sind: die ersten und dritten Momente der Einträge sind~0 für die 97.\ Momente existiert eine in~$n$ gleichmäßige Schranke.

- Optimal sensor placement for linear systems (2013)
- The aim of sensor placement is to observe the state of a dynamical system while using only a small part of the available output information. Thus, the observer does not need sensors at every possible node of the system. We use sensor placement because it is not practical for large-scale networks, such as power grids, to place sensors at each node. With an optimal sensor placement we obtain a subset of sensors which minimizes the observer error in comparison to any other subset of the same size. This means we generate an optimal observation with the given number of sensors. We compute the observer error, for the linear dynamical systems we consider, with the H2-norm of the observer error system. In this approach, we optimize both the subset of selected sensors and the observer gain matrix in parallel. The optimization problem is non-convex both in a constraint, which bounds the H2-norm, as well as in the objective function which uses a l0-norm to count the used sensors. To obtain a semidefinite program, we first relax the l0-norm by an iterative reweighted l1-norm. Second, we use a reformulation of the H2-norm with linear matrix inequalities to replace an occuring bilinear and therefore non-convex term. We use this computationally efficient formulation of the sensor placement problem to derive three algorithms. Furthermore, existing algorithms, which do not use the convex reformulation of the optimization problem, were implemented. The algorithms are compared extensively relating to execution time, performance of the chosen sensors, and the applicability on a practical problem. The practical problem is a model of a high-voltage power grid with the aim to measure the phase angles and the frequencies at every node. The result of the comparison is that a algorithm with a greedy approach solves the optimization problem fast and usually with a good solution. However, this algorithm is problematic because the shortsighted greedy approach cannot exclude that a worst case solution is generated. The best results in general were produced by a novel approach made in this thesis. This novel algorithm iteratively solves the relaxed optimization problem and finds near-optimal sensor subsets.