- Water in the Earth’s Interior: Thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrogen incorporation in olivine and wadsleyite (2004)
- (1) Hydrogen diffusion in olivine The kinetics of hydration of dry single crystals of San Carlos olivine was determined by performing experiments under water-saturated conditions. The experiments were performed at 1.5 GPa, 1000°C for 5 hours in a piston cylinder apparatus, or at 0.2 GPa, 900°C, for 1 and 20 hours in TZM cold-seal vessels. Polarized Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) was employed to quantify the hydroxyl distributions in the samples after the experiments. The new data obtained show a strong anisotropy of diffusion, with the diffusion coefficient D>D> D at 900°C for short duration experiments. This initial mechanism of diffusion possibly involved a redox-exchange between proton and polaron. After longer duration experiment, the anisotropy of diffusion is different with D>D» D. For this second stage of diffusion a model of hydrogen-metal vacancy associated defects is proposed, where the vacancies are the slower diffusing species with the diffusion laws: ,  = 10-(5.6±3.2) exp [-(175 ± 76)/RT]  = 10-(1.4±0.5) exp [-(258 ± 31)/RT] (2) Hydrogen diffusion in forsterite The kinetics of hydration linked to magnesium-vacancy diffusion within dry synthetic forsterite single crystals was determined by performing similar experiments and analyses as in the previous section. The experiments were performed at 1.5 GPa, 1000°C for 3 hours in piston cylinder apparatus, or at 0.2 GPa, 900-1110°C, for 3-20 hours in TZM cold-seal vessels. The chemical diffusion coefficients are marginally slower than in iron-bearing olivine for the same diffusion process, but the anisotropy of diffusion is the same, with the  axis the fastest direction of diffusion and  the slowest. Fits of the diffusion data to an Arrhenius law yield similar activation energies for each of the crystallographic axes; a global fit to all the diffusion data gave an activation energy around 211 ± 18 kJmol-1. Thus hydration likely occurs by coupled diffusion of protons and octahedrally coordinated metal vacancies. The diffusion rates are fast enough to modify water contents within xenoliths ascending from the mantle but they are probably too slow to permit a total equilibration in a new dry or wet environment. (3)Dehydration profiles in natural mantle-derived olivine within basalt First evidence for water diffusion in a natural mantle-derived olivine are presented from peridotite samples. The samples are olivine crystals within lherzolite xenoliths from the Quaternary alkali basalts of the Pali-Aike volcanic field in Patagonia. Water content and distribution was studied using unpolarized and polarized FTIR and analyses shows that olivine, Cr-diopside and orthopyroxene contain a significant amount of water, with up to 13 wt ppm H2O for olivine and up to 250 wt ppm H2O in the pyroxenes. In contrast, analysis of optically clear-parts of small garnet crystals indicates that they are dry. Oriented Infrared profiles show that olivine grains larger than 0.5 mm have hydroxyl-depleted rims. These water concentration profiles suggest that partial dehydration occurred during the ascent of the xenolith-bearing magma to the Earth’s surface, confirming that dehydration is occurring in the nature. From a combination of analyses of natural xenoliths with experimental diffusion works, ascent duration of the host magma is estimated to several hours, suggesting a fast rise up to the surface. (4)Temperature and pressure dependence of water solubility in iron-free wadsleyite Previous experimental studies indicate that the maximum solubility of water in wadsleyite may vary as a function of pressure and temperature. Therefore wadsleyite samples were synthesized using a multi-anvil press. One series of experiments were performed at a fixed pressure of 15 GPa and at various temperatures and in a second series the temperature was fixed at 1200°C and pressure was varied from 13 to 18 GPa. The starting material corresponds to a composition of Mg2SiO4 + 5wt% H2O. The water content was quantified by ion probe (SIMS). Results show that at 15 GPa, the water concentration decreases significantly with increasing temperature from 2.5 wt% H2O at 900oC down to 0.93 wt% H2O at 1400oC; the corresponding wadsleyite Mg/Si ratios increase from 1.79 to 1.93 over this temperature range. Up to 17 GPa, no significant effect of pressure on the water content was observed. Moreover, together with previous results on ringwoodite, these data imply a strong decrease of the water partition coefficient between wadsleyite and ringwoodite with temperature. (5) Computer simulation on hydrous point defect in iron-free wadsleyite The general utility lattice program (GULP), a semi-empirical method, was used to simulate the formation of point defects (Mott-Littleton method) in wadsleyite and especially hydrogen incorporation and their corresponding infrared frequencies.