- Organic solar cell (1) (remove)
- Synthesis, characterisation and application of low molecular weight and polymeric 1,3-di-2-thienylbenzo[c]thiophenes (2004)
- The synthesis and characterisation of the new class of compounds, dithienylisothianaphthene phenyldiamines (DTITNPDs) is described. These bifunctional hole transport dyes combine well-known hole-transport property of triaryl amines and thiophenes as well as low band gap nature of isothianaphthene (ITN) moiety. The synthetic strategy is chosen in such a way to obtain low molecular weight and polymeric DTITNPDs. Low molecular weight DTITNPDs are synthesised by Pd-catalysed amination of dibromo dithienylisothianaphthene with secondary amines. On the other hand, poly(DTITNPD)s are obtained via polycondensation of diiodo dithienylisothianaphthene and bis(secondary amine)s using a modified Ullmann reaction. The multi-step syntheses of dibromo dithienylisothianaphthene and novel diiodo dithienylisothianaphthene are optimised. The preparation of new bis(secondary amine)s are also described. Moreover, the influence of substituents on optical, electro-chemical and thermal properties of DTITNPDs and poly(DTITNPD)s is also investigated. The low molar mass (monomers) and polymeric DTITNs are also obtained. These compounds also possess hole transport property of thiophene and low band gap nature of ITN. Poly(DTITN)s are synthesised from corresponding monomers using FeCl3 oxidative polymerisation. Multi-step syntheses of DTITN monomers are also presented here. The main highlight of this work is the realisation of solution processable and film-forming and air-stable poly(DTITN) and poly(DTITNPD)s in addition to the model compounds DTITNs and DTITNPDs. The model compounds, polymeric DTITNPDs as well as poly(DTITN)s are characterised by means of 1H-NMR-, FT-IR-, MS- and UV-Vis- spectroscopy. Their thermal and electro-chemical behaviour is studied using TGA, DSC and CV measurements. All intermediates, synthesised in this work are also fully characterised by spectroscopic methods discussed above, except UV-Vis spectroscopy. Novel DTITNs and DTITNPDs show good thermal and electro-chemical stability as well as ability to form smooth thin films. DTITNPDs show lower band gap, solubility in common organic solvents and better thermal stability compared to DTITNs. For the application in organic electro-optical devices materials with improved optical and charge transport properties are required. Moreover, these hole transport dyes should match the energy levels (HOMO/LUMO) of the electron transport partner for efficient charge transfer/injection. In this respect, the main attention is placed on variation of energy levels in synthesised molecules by structure modification. The structure modification in DTITN usually changes the LUMO level in the molecule. In contrast to the DTITN, the introduction of different substituents into diphenylamine allows manipulation of HOMO level in DTITNPDs. Thus, the combination of DTITN and triarylamines leads to DTITNPD, where the values of both energy levels can be varied. Novel DTITNPDs exhibit smaller band gap compared to DTITNs. The better delocalised HOMO level in the DTITNPDs compared to DTITNs leads to novel hole transport dyes with Eg less than 1.8 eV. The low molar mass DTITNPDs are tested in plastic solar cells and multi-layer solar cells in combination with electron transport perylene bisimide derivatives and fullerene (C60). The poly(DTITN) is used in plastic solar cell in combination with a soluble fullerene derivative, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). All of these compounds show good performance in solar cells. External quantum efficiency (IPCE spectrum) for the last solar cell shows a maximum of 40 % at 350 nm and a maximum of 15 % at 540 nm, at maximum wavelength of absorption. A promising result is obtained using low molar mass DTITNPD as red-emitter in OLEDs. When the red emitter doped in Alq3 at concentration of 1 % is used as emitting layer in OLED, the pure red electroluminescence with maximum brightness of 13830 cd/m2 at operating voltage of 12 V is observed. This device exhibits a high efficiency of 3.8 cd/A at 6 V bias, emitting bright red electroluminescence with CIE coordinates of x = 0.66 and y = 0.34, closely resembling the desired standard red colour (NTSC standard: x = 0.67 and y = 0.34) set for RGB displays.