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- Shape Calculus Applied to Elliptic Optimal Control Problems (2012)
- This thesis is devoted to the analysis of a very simple, pointwisely state-constrained optimal control problem of an elliptic partial differential equation. The transfer of an idea from the field of optimal control of ordinary differential equations, which proved fruitful with respect to both theoretical treatment and design of algorithms, is the starting point. On this, the state inequality constraint, which is regarded as an equation inside the active set, is differentiated in order to obtain a control law. A geometrical splitting of the constraints is necessary to carry over this approach to the chosen model problem. The associated assertions are rigorously ensured. The subsequent derivation of a control law in the sense of the abovementioned idea yields an equivalent reformulation of the model problem. The active set appears as an independent and equal optimization variable in this new formulation. Thereby a new class of optimization problem is established, which forms a hybrid of optimal control and shape-/topology optimization: set optimal control. This class is integrated into the very abstract framework of optimization on vector bundles; for that purpose some important notions from the field of calculus on manifolds are introduced and related with shape calculus. First order necessary conditions of the set optimal control problem are derived by means of two different approaches: on the one hand a reduced approach via the elimination of the state variable, which uses a formulation as bilevel optimization problem, is pursued, and on the other hand a formal Lagrange principle is presented. A comparison of the newly obtained optimality conditions with those known form literature yields relations between the Lagrange multipliers; in particular, it becomes apparent that the new approach involves higher regularity. The comparison is embedded to the theory of partial differential-algebraic equations, and it is shown that the new approach yields a reduction of the differential index. Upon investigation of the gradient and the second covariant derivative of the objective functional different Newton- and trial algorithms are presented and discussed in detail. By means of a comparison with the well-established primal-dual active set method different benefits of the new approach become apparent. In particular, the new algorithms can be formulated in function space without any regularization. Some numerical tests illustrate that an efficient and competitive solution of state-constrained optimal control problems is achieved. The whole work gives numerous references to different mathematical disciplines and encourages further investigations. All in all, it should be regarded as a first step towards a more comprehensive perspective on state-constrained optimal control of partial differential equations.