The signal transduction of the adipokinetic hormone and regulation of energy metabolism in the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus de Geer (Ensifera: Gryllidae)
Anurag N. Anand
- The fat body from the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus incorporates acetate, glycerol or palmitate into lipid in vitro. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) inhibits acetate incorporation into lipid by the fat body from adult crickets in vitro. AKH inhibits palmitate incorporation into lipid to a small extent, however, it does not influence the incorporation of palmitate into different lipid classes. In the presence of AKH, glycerol incorporation into lipid by the adult cricket fat body increases by several fold. AKH does not influence the incorporation of glycerol into different lipid classes. The fat body incorporates glycerol mainly into triacylglycerol (TAG) and almost exclusively into the backbone. AKH inhibits fatty acid (FA) synthesis but not the coupling of FAs with the glycerol backbone. Triacylglycerol lipase (TGL) from the fat body, in last larval instar and adult crickets, shows an age-dependent pattern of activity. AKH activates TGL, but does not regulate ACCase, ACL and FAS upon treatment of the fat body for a short period, under the assay conditions. The FAS and acetate incorporation activities are highly correlated in an age-dependent manner and are highest on day 2 of the adult stage. The activation of the formation of sn-1,2-DAG from TAG, in the fat body by AKH seems to be via the removal of FAs at positions 1 and 3, followed by reacylation of 2-MAG. The presence of calcium in the incubation medium is crucial for the inhibition of acetate incorporation by AKH; possibly it is essential for the binding of AKH to the receptor. The influx of acetate and calcium into and efflux of calcium from the cytosol are not affected by AKH. The release of calcium from intracellular calcium stores in the fat body, caused by thapsigargin, inhibits acetate incorporation irreversibly and shows a tendency for the activation of TGL. The calcium ionophore ionomycin inhibits acetate incorporation by the fat body reversibly and shows a tendency for TGL activation. Another ionophore, A23187 also inhibits acetate incorporation. Caffeine and theophylline inhibit acetate incorporation by the fat body in a reversible manner and tend to activate TGL. Caffeine seems to act via the release of calcium from intracellular stores and not via increase in the cellular cAMP concentrations. cAMP analogues and agonists do not influence acetate incorporation, however, the agonists, IBMX and forskolin cause a multifold increase in the cAMP concentrations in the fat body. AKH does not affect the cAMP concentrations in the fat body suggesting that cAMP is not involved in the signal transduction. As the activation of protein kinase C by PMA (a phorbol ester) does not affect acetate incorporation, diacylglycerol does not seem to be involved in the AKH signal transduction. The activation and/or translocation of TGL and inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by AKH seems to be via the release of calcium from intracellular calcium stores. Lipid and protein form a major part of the fat body in the penultimate larval instar crickets, while glycogen forms a minor part. However, in comparison with the adult (glycogen content of fat body about 1%) and last larval instar crickets (glycogen content about 3%), the penultimate larval instar crickets contain higher amounts of glycogen (about 9%). AKH inhibits acetate incorporation into lipid by the fat body from penultimate larval instar crickets. The patterns of acetate incorporation and inhibition by AKH are similar in both, males and females. The inhibition is dose-dependent with an EC50 of 79 pM AKH. AKH seems to play an important role in the development and reproduction of insects, in addition to its role during flight metabolism.