An Investigation of Organizational Level Continuance of Cloud-Based Enterprise Systems
- Cloud-based enterprise systems are a growing trend in today’s business software market. With a steadily expanding number of implementations, cloud service providers are now turning their attention from adoption issues towards retaining their existing customer base. The difficulties even established cloud players, like e.g. Salesforce.com, face in retaining their customers have been emphasized by tech bloggers, where the subscriptions of cloud-based enterprise systems are cancelled even at an early stage of adoption. This discontinuance of enterprise systems at an early stage is a rather new phenomenon, which is related to the subscription-based payment model of cloud services, which (theoretically) allows service cancellation without the customers having to fear financial penalties. In contrast, traditional on-premise systems (e.g. SAP ERP) are on a long term license base, where customers are contractually bound. Therefore the research question of the thesis is as follows: What factors influence the organizational level continuance intention of cloud-based enterprise systems? In an effort to answer this research question, the thesis presents five inter-related papers. The first paper develops a conceptual model to study the continuance of cloud-based enterprise systems. Building on this, paper two develops a formative measurement instrument to assess the success of operational cloud-based enterprise systems. The third paper quantitatively explores the influence of the variables identified in the conceptual model. Building on these findings, paper four conducts a stakeholder analysis to solve the problem of broad samples. Finally, the fifth paper uses the formative measurement instrument to test the final research model, which is a revision of the conceptual model developed in the first paper. The results show that continuance intention is influenced both, by information systems success variables, as well as continuance inertia. In addition, behavioral variables, such as attitude towards usage also explained a decent amount of variance in the dependent variable.
Wage Policy in a Global World
- This thesis contains an extended literature review and three essays on the interaction of globalization and wage policy, employment, income distribution and welfare. A specific focus lies thereby on the role of trade unions as one major labor market institution. A brief introductory chapter motivates the general topic before an extended literature review highlights main findings from previous studies.
The first essay sets up a multi-sector general oligopolistic equilibrium trade model in which all firms face wage claims of firm-level unions. By accounting for productivity differences across industries, the model features income inequality along multiple lines, including inequality between firm owners and workers as well as within these two groups of agents, and involuntary unemployment. This setting is used to study the impact of trade liberalization on key macroeconomic performance measures. In particular, the study shows that a movement from autarky to free trade with a fully symmetric partner country lowers union wage claims and therefore stimulates employment and raises welfare. Whether firms can extract a larger share of rents in the open economy depends on the competitive environment in the product market. Furthermore, the distribution of profit income becomes more equal when a country opens up to trade with a fully symmetric trading partner. It is also shown how country size differences and technological dissimilarity of trading partners affect the results from the analysis.
The second essay also builds upon the framework of general oligopolistic equilibrium with two countries that, however, differ in the centralization of union wage setting. Being interested in the consequences of openness, this study shows that, in the short-run, trade increases welfare and employment in both locations, and it raises income of capital owners as well as workers. In the long run, capital outflows from the country with the more centralized wage setting generate winners and losers and make the two countries more dissimilar in terms of unemployment and welfare. Decentralization of wage setting can successfully prevent capital outflow and the export of jobs.
The third and final essay is of an empirical nature and investigates the role of wages as a potential driving force for German export activity. In the past 15 years Germany has been characterized by a strong export activity while at the same time initiating structural reforms on the labor market. It is often argued that German firms and plants are particularly successful in exporting since they are very competitive internationally. By computing unit labor costs as a measure of international competitiveness based on OECD STAN data and the IAB establishment panel this study investigates the role of unit labor costs for the decision to export. The results show that (i) German plants’ export intensity is positively correlated with competitiveness and (ii) that the relationship is spuriously driven by a non-industry specific common time trend. The study furthermore applies a corner solution model that allows to disentangle the total effect into its effect at the extensive and intensive margin of trade. Results indicate a positive and significant effect of competitiveness at both margins but the effect turns out insignificant before the introduction of the Euro.
Trade, Labor Markets and the Organization of Production within Firms
- The main research question of this thesis is how globalization shapes the organization of production within firms, with a particular focus on the role of labor market imperfections in open economies. For that reason, I make use of three different models to investigate the interaction between firm organization and labor market imperfections in the process of globalization. Thereby, the organization of production is discussed from different perspectives: (i) the number of products a firm is willing to produce and (ii) the organization of labor within firms. In each chapter, I use a different approach to account for imperfections in factor markets. This allows a broad discussion on how labor market institutions affect the equilibrium outcome in closed and open economies, and how these imperfections affect a firm's organization choice.
After a short introduction in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 sets up a general oligopolistic equilibrium model with multi-product firms and union wage setting. In this model, two policy experiments are conducted. First, it is shown that deunionization induces a general decline in firm scale and scope, with the respective reduction being more pronounced in non-unionized industries. Second, the consequences of trade liberalization are studied, and it is shown that access to foreign markets lowers firm scope in all industries as well as the scope differential between unionized and non-unionized firms. Adjustments in firm scale turn out to be less clearcut and inter alia depend on the degree of product differentiation.
Chapter 3 looks inside the firm and investigates how trade alters the matching of worker-specific abilities and task-specific skill requirements. The outcome of this matching process depends on how firms organize their recruitment process and how much they invest into the screening of applicants. In the open economy, the most productive firms start exporting. They increase their market share and therefore find it attractive to increase their screening investment, which improves the matching outcome. Things are different for non-exporters, whose market share shrinks in the open economy, lowering their incentive to invest for screening applicants. Due to this asymmetric response, access to trade raises the dispersion of productivity between heterogeneous producers, while at the same time increasing the average quality of worker-task matches and thus economy-wide labor productivity.
Chapter 4 sets up a heterogeneous firms model, where production consists of a continuum of tasks and firms hire low-skilled and high-skilled workers for the performance of tasks, which differ in their complexity. How firms assign workers to tasks depends on factor prices for the two skill types and the productivity advantage of high-skilled workers in the performance of complex tasks. After characterizing the closed economy equilibrium with fully flexible wages, I show how firms adjust the assignment of workers top tasks in response to the introduction of a binding real minimum wage for low-skilled workers and migration of low-skilled or high-skilled workers. With a minimum wage, the opening up for trade reduces the range of tasks performed by high-skilled workers. It furthermore leads to a higher per-capita income of both skill types, which implies a higher welfare in the open than in the closed economy, while inequality between the two skill types increases. In an extension, I discuss how the firm-internal assignment of skills to tasks is affected by labor market linkages in open economies.
Topics in health economics and social policy - abstracts of the 7th DIBOGS-Workshop, Düsseldorf 2012
Toufic M. El Masri
- Der DIBOGS e.V. ist aus dem Duisburg-Ilmenau-Bayreuther Oberseminar zur Gesund-heitsökonomik und Sozialpolitik (DIBOGS) hervorgegangen. Der Verein hat sich zum Ziel gesetzt, den wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchs auf dem Gebiet der Wirtschaftswissenschaften in den Forschungsfeldern Gesundheitsökonomik, Gesundheitspolitik und Sozialpolitik zu fördern. Zu den Aktivitäten des Vereins zählt u.a. ein gesundheitsökonomischer Workshop, der erstmalig im Jahr 2005 ausgerichtet wurde und der sich zentral an gesundheitsökonomische Nachwuchswissenschaftler richtet. Ziel ist es, einen möglichst regen Erfahrungsaustausch herbeizuführen und insofern Unterstützung bei der Vorbereitung und Durchführung von Dissertations- oder Habilitationsvorhaben, sowie sonstigen wissenschaftlichen Projekten oder Publikationen zu bieten.
Der Workshop stellt nicht die Präsentation an sich, sondern den Austausch über das jeweilige Thema in den Mittelpunkt. Alle Papiere gehen den Teilnehmern im Vorfeld zu. Während des Workshops stehen für jedes Papier 45 Minuten zur Verfügung. Ein Koreferent setzt sich in-tensiv mit dem Papier auseinander, darauf schließt sich eine Diskussion unter den Teilnehmern an. Mittlerweile (seit 2006) gibt es zu jedem Workshop einen Sammelband, der die (fach)politische Öffentlichkeit über diskutierte Themen informieren soll.
Der vorliegende Band „DIBOGS-Beiträge zur Gesundheitsökonomik und Sozialpolitik“ enthält - im Gegensatz zu den Überblicksartikeln aus den Vorjahren - die Zusammenfassungen/Abstracts ausgewählter Beiträge des siebten Duisburg-Ilmenau-Bayreuther Oberseminars zur Gesundheitsökonomik und Sozialpolitik (DIBOGS), das am 23. November 2012 in Düsseldorf stattgefunden hat. Die Zusammenfassung soll einen ersten Überblick über die diskutierten Papiere geben, die unter den ggf. jeweils angegeben Links auch im Detail gelesen werden können. Weitere Informationen zum Sammelband sowie zur Teilnahme am Workshop entnehmen Sie bitte der Webseite www.dibogs.biz.
Measurement of emotional reactions to television advertisements – A state of the art review
- Human emotions and their measurement present a complex and intricate affair
which perpetuates an ongoing discourse in marketing research. Since emotions
play a pivotal role in the success of advertisements, the exploitation of tools for
their precise measurement is crucial to researchers and practitioners alike. Yet,
there is no single gold standard instrument existent that enables a comprehensive
detection of all emotion facets at once. This thesis therefore focuses on the theoretical
conceptualization of emotion, and afterwards presents a variety of measurement
methods that address different emotion components. Thereby, particular
emphasis is placed on their applicability as regards television commercials.
The service-productivity learning cockpit – a business intelligence tool for service enterprises
- The paper describes the development of an agent-based simulation tool for hospital managers to manage their productivity of services, especially in the context of supporting services like patient transport logistics. The learning cockpit allows hospital managers to see how the change of inputs changes the overall perceived customer values of all stakeholders and therefore to get a visualization of the impacts their decisions cause. The paper introduces the general research domain service-productivity, followed by a description of the development steps of artefact creation. The learning cockpit is part of a research project called BELOUGA, which is funded by the German government.
Theoretical and Computation Basis for CATNETS - Annual Report Year 3
- In this document the developments in defining the computational and theoretical framework for economical resource allocation are described. Accordingly the formal specification of the market mechanisms, bidding strategies of the involved agents and the integration of the market mechanisms into the simulator were refined.
The BabelNEG System - A Protocol-generic Infrastructure for Electronic SLA Negotiations in the Internet of Services
- Visions of the next-generation Internet of Services are driven by digital resources traded on a global scope. For the resulting economic setting, automated on-line techniques for handling services and resources themselves, for advertising and discovering as well as for the on-the-fly negotiation of proper terms for their use are needed. Hence, a flexible infrastructure for the respective management of services and associated service level agreements is mandatory. This thesis presents the results of my dissertation project. They comprise a service infrastructure, able to support the structured discovery and protocol-generic negotiation of electronic service level agreements (SLAs) and thus services themselves.
The Effects of Project Management Mechanisms on Innovation Performance in Hi-Tech Firms: Mediation of Teamwork Processes and Moderating Effects of Different Team Members’ Cultural Values
- High tech firms increasingly form innovation projects composed of team members with different cultural backgrounds to respond to their customers’ needs. Prior studies have regarded these cross cultural innovation projects as an important instrument for developing innovative products, yet little effort has been investigated on the issue of the effect of project management mechanisms (autonomy and control) on these projects and the impacts of team members’ cultural backgrounds on different project management mechanisms. Moreover, prior studies have neglected to bridge the gap between the effect of these project management mechanisms on communication and coordination of teamwork processes. Therefore, this study aims to fulfill the gaps in project management and cross cultural study by exploring the effects of different project management mechanisms on several types of innovation performance. In particular, it examines the relationships of these project management mechanisms on innovation performance mediated by the teamwork processes and moderated by the different backgrounds of team members represented by their cultural values. Structural equation modelling was used to test all hypotheses from 434 new product development project team members. The results indicated that control mechanisms had stronger effects on innovation performance than providing autonomy. Additionally, the study showed that all project management mechanisms (autonomy and control mechanisms) had indirect effects on radical innovation and project efficiency through communication and coordination. However, these control mechanisms had indirect impacts on incremental innovation only through coordination but not communication. Importantly, this study revealed that control mechanisms could apply to the team members with different cultural backgrounds in encouraging higher innovation performance. In order to enhance higher innovation performance, the suggestions to apply the appropriate project management mechanisms to their team members with different cultural backgrounds are provided.
Towards the Governance of Open Distributed Grids - A Case Study in Wireless Mobile Grids
- New networking technologies such as wireless mobile grids and peer-to-peer middleware are examples of a growing class of open distributed systems whose strength is the absence of a central controlling instance and which function through the cooperation of autonomous entities that voluntarily commit resources to a common pool. The social dilemma in such systems is that it is advantageous for rational users to access the common pool resources without making any commitment of their own. This is commonly known as “free-riding”. However, if a substantial number of users followed this selfish strategy, the system itself would fail, depriving all users of its benefits. In this dissertation, we demonstrate how governance decisions can induce cooperation in such systems and how normative frameworks in combination with multi-agent system simulations can be successfully employed to analyse their effects, even at an early development stage. We show that our approach is not only practical and powerful, but also easily accessible. We demonstrate its functionality by implementing a prototype to explore the impact of enforcement mechanisms on wireless mobile grids, a concept which has been proposed to address the energy issues arising in the next generation of mobile phones and the networks that connect them. We also infer lessons from this example for open distributed systems in general. Simulation experiments quantify the benefits of enforcement mechanisms for wireless mobile grids. We analyse these results with respect to the costs of enforcement as well as further criteria that reflect the interests of the multiple stakeholders in the system. We conclude with some observations on how the lessons learned from both process and outcomes may be applicable to the broader context of open distributed systems. In particular, we highlight (i) the use of simulation using intelligent agents and a normative framework as a means for in silico exploration of complex systems for both business and technological objectives, and (ii) the insight offered into a range of enforcement mechanisms and a better understanding of the conditions and constraints under which they are applicable.